Temporal Trend, Prevalence, Predictors and Outcomes of Gastrointestinal Bleed in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy in the United States (from the National Inpatient Sample)

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The American journal of cardiology


Gastrointestinal bleed (GIB) is an important complication in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) although its prevalence, predictors and outcomes are unknown. The national inpatient sample 2011 to 2018 was analyzed to find hospitalizations with the diagnosis of HC. HC patients were divided into 2 groups: with and without GIB. Baseline characteristics between the 2 groups were compared (Table 2). Variables with p value of 0.2 or less from univariate logistic regression were included in the multivariate logistic regression to find an independent predictor of GIB in HC patients. Stata IC was used for all statistical analysis. Our study reported 242,172 HC hospitalizations between 2011 and 2018, out of which 13,231 (5.4%) also has a concurrent diagnosis of GIB. The GIB group was older (mean age ± SD: 70 ± 28 vs 65 ± 10, p <0.001), more likely to be female (62.5 vs 57%, p <0.001) and had higher burden of comorbidities . HC patients with GIB had higher in-hospital mortality rate (5.3 vs 3.1%, p <0.001), mean length of stay (7.8 vs 5.6 days, p <0.001) and mean total hospital cost ($100,294 vs 77,966, p <0.001). Age group >75, female, chronic kidney disease (CKD 3/4), end-stage renal disease, cirrhosis, coagulopathy and malnutrition were an independent predictor of GIB in HC patients. In conclusion, the prevalence of GIB during HC hospitalizations is increasing. Older, white, females with higher burden of comorbidities are at an increased risk of GIB in HC patients. Sex-based disparities in the prevalence of GIB in HC patients is an area of further research.

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