Cardiac transplantation for hypertrophic cardiomyopathy in the United States 2003-2011

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International Journal of Critical Illness and Injury Science


Background: Cardiac transplant (CT) is the sole option in a minority of hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HC) adults with refractory symptoms or end-stage disease. Aims/Methods: We aimed to examine the trends and hospital outcomes of CT in HC using 2003-2011 Nationwide Inpatient Sample database. Results: HC comprised 1.1% of CT (151 of 14,277) performed during this time period (age 45±12 years, 67% male, 79% Caucasians). Number of HC CT increased from 2003 to 2011 (odds ratio=1.174; 95% confidence interval=1.102-1.252; P< 0.001). Comorbidities included congestive heart failure (76%), hypertension (23%), chronic kidney disease (23%), hyperlipidemia (19%), diabetes (13%), and coronary artery disease (10%). Acute in-hospital major adverse events occurred in 1 in 4 (23%) patient and 1 in 25 (3.8%) patients died perioperatively. Other major adverse events included allograft rejection or vasculopathy (23%), postoperative stroke or transient ischemic attack (3.5%), acute renal failure (43%), respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation (13%), sepsis (10%) or need for blood transfusion (10%). Compared to 1990-2004 United Network of Organ Sharing registry data (n=303), patients in current cohort had more comorbid conditions [diabetes (13%-vs-0%); chronic obstructive lung disease (9%-vs-1%); P < 0.001 for both), were more likely to be male (66%-vs-48% P< 0.001), were less likely to be Caucasian (79%-vs-86%; P < 0.001) or smokers (3%-vs-17%; P < 0.001) and less often required perioperative circulatory support or hemodialysis (17%-vs-49%, P < 0.001 and 3.2%-vs-8.3%, P = 0.04, respectively). Conclusion: HC comprises a small proportion of patients undergoing CT. The annual number of CT in HC has increased in recent years at least in part due to inclusion of patients with more comorbid conditions. Transplant recipients in the current cohort, however, required less postoperative circulatory support or renal replacement therapy.

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