Impact of β1- and β2-adrenergic receptor gene single nucleotide polymorphisms on heart rate response to metoprolol prior to coronary computed tomographic angiography

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American Journal of Cardiology


A slow, steady heart rate (HR) is necessary for optimal image quality during coronary computed tomographic angiography. Beta blockers are often used, but the goal HR is not achieved in some patients. The aim of this study was to examine the influence of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the β1 (codons 49 and 389) and β2 (codons 16, 27, and 164) adrenergic receptor (AR) genes on HR response to metoprolol in 200 adults (mean age 56 ± 11 years) referred for coronary computed tomographic angiography (using a 64-slice scanner). Oral and intravenous (IV) metoprolol was given to achieve a goal HR of <60 beats/min. Overall, 37 patients (18.5%) did not reach the goal HR despite the administration of oral (181 ± 116 mg) and IV (4.2 ± 9.4 mg) metoprolol. Patients with the β1-AR Ser49Gly or Gly49Gly genotype (n = 49) more often failed to reach an optimal HR compared to those with the Ser49Ser genotype (n = 151) (29% vs 15%, p = 0.04), despite receiving higher doses of oral (210 ± 115 vs 172 ± 115 mg, p = 0.048) and IV (7 ± 13 vs 3 ± 8 mg, p = 0.02) metoprolol. Similarly, patients with the β1-AR Gly389Gly genotype (n = 11) more often failed to reach an optimal HR compared to those with the Arg389Arg and Arg389Gly genotypes (n = 189) (45% vs 17%, p = 0.02), despite receiving higher doses of IV (13 ± 15 vs 4 ± 9 mg, p = 0.002) but not oral (162 ± 105 vs 182 ± 117 mg, p = 0.50) metoprolol. Multivariate analysis identified β1-AR SNPs at codons 49 and 389 and β2-AR SNP at codon 27 as independent predictors of suboptimal HR response. In conclusion, these data indicate that the selected SNPs of β1-AR and β2-AR genes influence HR response to metoprolol in patients who undergo coronary computed tomographic angiography. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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