Men's Health: Scrotal and Testicular Conditions

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Scrotal and testicular conditions include benign masses, infections, testicular torsion, and testicular cancer. Common palpable benign scrotal masses include spermatocele, varicocele, and hydrocele. Most patients with these masses require no treatment. Some varicoceles are associated with impaired fertility, probably due to an increase in scrotal temperature that leads to testicular hyperthermia, oxidative stress, and reduced spermatogenesis. Patients with documented infertility or scrotal pain should be referred to a urology subspecialist for consideration of surgical management. Epididymitis and epididymo-orchitis are caused by infection with , , or enteric bacteria. Antibiotics and supportive measures (eg, scrotal elevation, bed rest) are recommended for management of acute epididymitis. Testicular torsion is a urologic emergency that requires rapid surgical exploration and orchidopexy to reduce the risk of testicular loss due to ischemia. Salvage rates exceed 90% when surgical exploration is performed within 6 hours of symptom onset. Testicular cancer commonly manifests as a painless, incidentally discovered mass in a single testis. Ultrasonography is recommended to confirm the diagnosis. The recommended primary intervention for a suspected malignant testicular tumor is radical inguinal orchiectomy.

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